Shiva as Lord of the Dance (Nataraja)

A work made of bronze.
CC0 Public Domain Designation

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  • A work made of bronze.


Chola period, about 10th/11th century


Tamil Nadu

About this artwork

Shiva, one of the most important Hindu divinities, is here depicted as the Lord of the Dance (Nataraja), an iconic image in Indian art. Shiva’s cosmic dance sets in motion the rhythm of life and death; it pervades the universe, as symbolized by the ring of fire that is filled with the loose, snakelike locks of the god’s hair. One pair of his arms balances the flame of destruction and the hand drum (damaru) that beats the rhythm of life while another performs symbolic gestures: the raised right hand means “fear not,” and the left hand (gajahasta) pointing down toward his raised left foot signifies release from the ignorance that hinders realization of the ultimate reality. Shiva is shown perfectly balanced, with his right leg planted on the demon of darkness (Apasmara), stamping out ignorance. The tiny figure of the personified river goddess, Ganga, is caught up in his matted, flowing locks. Shiva was believed to break the fall of the great Ganges River as it descends from the Himalayas by standing beneath the waters, which divide over his hair, becoming the seven holy rivers of India. This classic bronze comes from the Chola period in the south of India. Icons such as this were carried in procession during religious ceremonies.

On View

Asian Art, Gallery 141


Shiva as Lord of the Dance (Nataraja)


Tamil Nadu


901 AD–1100




69.3 × 61.8 × 24.1 cm (27 1/4 × 24 1/4 × 9 1/2 in.)

Credit Line

Kate S. Buckingham Fund

Reference Number


Extended information about this artwork

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