Dates are not always precisely known, but the Art Institute strives to present this information as consistently and legibly as possible. Dates may be represented as a range that spans decades, centuries, dynasties, or periods and may include qualifiers such as c. (circa) or BCE.
Gift of the family of Irene M. Groenier in her memory
The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) represents a set of open standards that enables rich access to digital media from libraries, archives, museums, and other cultural institutions around the world.
Marvin D. Schwartz, “It’s Growing! Chicago’s American Wing,” Arts and Antiques Weekly, June 29, 1990, 1, 76–8, (ill.)
Judith A. Barter and Monica Obniski, “For Kith and Kin: The Folk Art Collection at the Art Institute of Chicago,” (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2012) no. 49.
Object information is a work in progress and may be updated as new research findings emerge. To help improve this record, please email . Information about image downloads and licensing is available here.